sarcomatoid renal cancer

What sarcomatoid renal cancer is
Sarcomatoid renal cell cancer is a rare type of kidney (renal) cancer. Fewer than 1 in 20 (5%) kidney cancers are sarcomatoid renal cancers.

Most kidney cancers start in cells called clear cells, but they can start in other cells too. It sems that any type of renal cell cancer can become sarcomatoid. This means that the cells of the cancer look like the cells of a sarcoma. So they are called ‘sarcomatoid’.

Sarcomas are cancers of the supportive tissue in our bodies. Supportive tissue includes

Fibrous tissue
Blood vessels
Sarcomatoid tumours are generally made up of other cell types too. These are usually clear cells and cells called chromophobe cells. Some doctors think that some kidney cancers turn into sarcomatoid tumours as the disease progresses.

Sarcomatoid renal tumours tend to grow more quickly than other types of kidney cancers and are more likely to spread to other parts of the body. This can make them more difficult to treat.
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Mesothelioma Symptoms

What are the warning signs of mesothelioma?

Mesothelioma is difficult to diagnose because the early signs and symptoms of the disease can be subtle at best. Symptoms are all too frequently ignored or dismissed by people who are inclined to attribute them to common every day ailments. Sometimes patients live with symptoms for up to 6 months before being diagnosed but usually the symptoms are present for two to three months prior to mesothelioma diagnosis.

About 60% of patients diagnosed with pleural mesothelioma experience lower back pain or side chest pain and there are frequent reports of shortness of breath. Lower numbers of people may experience difficulty swallowing, or have a persistent cough, fever, weight loss or fatigue. Symptoms to also consider are muscle weakness, loss of sensory capability, coughing up blood, facial and arm swelling and hoarseness.

Peritoneal mesothelioma originates in the abdomen and as a result, symptoms often include abdominal pain, weight loss, nausea, and vomiting. In the event that there is a hernia present, fluid build up may occur in the abdomen as well.

Anyone previously exposed to asbestos displaying any of these symptoms should seek medical attention from mesothelioma doctors who specialize in treating mesothelioma like Dr. David Sugarbaker.

Medicine.Net - Mesothelioma
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Mesothelioma Causes

What are the main causes of mesothelioma?
Mesothelioma is most predominantly caused by asbestos exposure. Asbestos fibers that are inhaled through the mouth and nose may eventually become embedded in the lining of the lungs, causing damage and resulting in mesothelioma lung cancer or asbestosis (scar tissue formation in the lungs). It has also been found that swallowing asbestos fibers could contribute to a form of mesothelioma originating in the abdomen called peritoneal mesothelioma.

Mesothelioma cancer generally results from occupational exposure but there are instances of environmental exposure to asbestos that can cause mesothelioma disease. Oftentimes second hand exposure of a family member to an asbestos workers dirty work clothes can result in that family member having a mesothelioma diagnosis.

Asbestos insulation workers appear to have the highest death rate. One study reports that almost six percent of asbestos workers fall victim to mesothelioma or experience mesothelioma symptoms and asbestos insulation workers are over 300 times more likely to die from mesothelioma than the general public.

Cancerbackup - Causes of mesothelioma
eMedicineHealth - Mesothelioma Causes
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Mesothelioma Cancer

Malignant mesothelioma is the most serious of all asbestos-related diseases. Although uncommon, mesothelioma cancer is no longer considered rare. Making a correct mesothelioma diagnosis is particularly difficult for doctors because the disease often presents with symptoms that mimic other common ailments. There is no known cure for mesothelioma, but treatments such as mesothelioma radiation and chemotherapy have helped to improve the typical mesothelioma prognosis.

The cavities within the body encompassing the chest, abdomen, and heart are surround by a membrane of cells known as the mesothelium. Mesothelial cells assist in general organ functions.

The mesothelium is particularly important to organs which are commonly in motion, such as expansion or contraction of the lungs, stomach, or heart. Lubrication from the mesothelial cells allows free range of motion within the body. The mesothelium of the chest, abdomen, and cardiac cavity are called the pleura, the peritoneum, and the pericardium, respectively. Each of these groupings of mesothelial cells are extremely critical to the functions of the body structures which they encompass.

Malignancies (cancerous tumors) occurring within the mesothelial membranes are known as malignant mesothelioma, or simply mesothelioma. Benign tumors of the mesothelium are known to occur, but are much rarer than the more common mesothelioma cancer.

While tumors of the mesothelium were first recognized in the late 18th century, it was not until the middle of the 20th century that this particular cancer was studied and examined with more detail. It was at this time where suspicions of the cancer’s causal relationship with asbestos exposure became more substantiated. A joint study through the Department of Thoracic Surgery at the University of the Witswaterand/Johannesburg General Hospital in South Africa provided the most compelling evidence of the nexus between asbestos exposure and the development of pleural mesothelioma.

Incidence of mesothelioma is still quite rare, with only 2,500-3000 diagnoses in the United States each year. There was a spike in reported diagnoses between 1970 and 1984, which has been attributed to the latency period between diagnosis and the height of industrial exposures- which occurred roughly 40-60 years prior to this time. Exposure was common in nearly all industries but was particularly common in the WWII-era military industrial cycle, including Navy Shipyards.

Although this cancer is much more common in men over the age of 60 (largely attributed to the industrial exposures within male-dominated industries), mesothelioma in women and children has been described as well. Mesothelioma causes for diagnosis in women and children are mainly attributed to secondary exposure to asbestos, as it was not uncommon for men to bring asbestos back into the home on their body or clothing if proper cleaning facilities were not available on site.

There are three recognized mesothelioma cell-types. Between 50 and 70% of all mesotheliomas are of the epithelial variety. While prognosis is generally poor, these are considered less aggressive than mesotheliomas of the sarcomatoid and biphasic variety, which comprise the remainder of diagnoses. Mesothelioma treatment options for each type of diagnosis are essentially the same, depending on stage at diagnosis and overall patient health.

Pleural mesothelioma (affecting the lung’s protective lining in the chest cavity) represents about three quarters of all mesothelioma incidence. Peritoneal and pericardial mesotheliomas, affecting the abdominal and cardiac cavities comprise the remainder. Testicular mesothelioma is extremely rare and is typically presents with metastases of the peritoneal variety.
How is Mesothelioma Cancer Treated?

Mesothelioma, while certainly an aggressive disease, is a treatable malignancy. While there is no cure for mesothelioma, treatment options including surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy are available for many patients. While a combination of Alimta® and Cisplatin is currently the only FDA approved chemotherapy regimen, several clinical trials are currently in progress utilizing other drugs including Gemcitabine and Onconase, with many showing dramatically improved results in certain cancer patients.

Radiation therapy is also utilized, but typically in conjunction with other treatment methods like surgery and chemotherapy. Surgical resection of mesothelioma is possible in early-stage-diagnosed patients. Aggressive surgeries such as extrapleural pneumonectomy can extend survival rates far beyond previously-thought timeframes. Diagnostic and palliative surgeries such as pleurocentesis and pleurodesis are also common in patients of malignant mesothelioma cancer.

Alternative therapies have also been used effectively by many mesothelioma patients to assist in managing symptoms of the disease and conventional treatments. These treatments are mainly preferential but can be extremely valuable to many patients.
How is Mesothelioma Cancer Diagnosed?

Mesothelioma can be a difficult malignancy to diagnose because the symptoms and pathology of the disease closely resemble other respiratory conditions. For this reason, misdiagnosis is not uncommon in mesothelioma patients. Symptoms of mesothelioma include chest pain, chronic cough, effusions of the chest and abdomen, and the presence of blood in lung fluid.

Diagnostic surgeries, including a biopsy, will typically be required to determine the type of malignant cells that are present in the body. Typically a body imaging scan, including a magnetic resonance image (MRI) or computer topography (CT scan) will be required to determine the extent and location of the disease.

Mesothelioma patients are generally referred by their personal physicians to one of the many renowned mesothelioma doctors in the United States. These oncologists are well versed in the disease behavior and pathology and are the most familiar with cutting-edge mesothelioma treatment options. Dr. David Sugarbaker of the Brigham and Women's Hospital, an extension of Harvard University and the Dana Farber Cancer Institute in Boston, MA, is at the forefront of mesothelioma treatment through the International Mesothelioma Program.
What Causes Mesothelioma Cancer

Mesothelioma is known only to be caused by exposure to asbestos, though cases have been documented in children or other individuals with no asbestos history. Asbestos is a microscopic and naturally-occuring mineral that lodges in the pleural lining of the lungs and the peritoneal lining of the abdominal cavity. In most cases, several years will pass (up to 60) before mesothelioma develops in those who had been exposed to asbestos.

In many cases, those diagnosed with mesothelioma who are known to have been exposed to asbestos may be eligible for financial compensation from asbestos manufacturers for their illness. Those who have been diagnosed with mesothelioma and were exposed to asbestos should fill out the brief form on this page. We'll rush you a complimentary mesothelioma and asbestos exposure information kit detailing new mesothelioma treatments, active clinical trials, top doctors, as well as how to obtain compensation for asbestos-related health conditions like mesothelioma.

National Cancer Institute – Malignant Mesothelioma
Wagner, J.C., Sleggs, C.A., and Marchand, Paul. “Diffuse Pleural Mesothelioma and Asbestos Exposure in the North Western Cape Province.” Department of Thoracic Surgery: University of The Witswatersrand. Johannesburg, South Africa. 1960.
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About Sarcomatoid Mesothelioma

Mesothelioma is a cancer that attacks the lubricative layer lining the inside of the chest and abdomen and the internal organs. Pathologists categorize mesothelioma cancer cases according to levels of criteria, which are as follows:


* Lungs (pleural mesothelioma)
* Abdomen (peritoneal mesothelioma)
* Heart (pericardial mesothelioma)


* Stage 1 Mesothelioma - Cancer cells have started to form
* Stage 2 Mesothelioma - Cancer has spread locally
* Stage 3 Mesothelioma - Cancer has spread to adjoining areas
* Stage 4 Mesothelioma - Cancer has begun to metastasize

Cellular Structure:

* Epithelial (organized and structured)
* Sarcomatoid (random and irregular)
* Biphasic (a mix of epithelial and sarcomatoid)
* Desoplastic (a variation of the sarcomatoid variety)

Cellular structure is determined by an actual visual examination of the cells under a microscope.
About Sarcomatoid Mesothelioma

Sarcomatoid Mesothelioma accounts for approximately 10 to 15 percent of all diagnoses. The mesothelioma cell types in this case are elongated and spindle-shaped, and are arranged in a rather haphazard way. Sarcomatoid cells also lack a nucleus, unlike epithelioid cells, which have clearly visible nuclei.

The desoplastic variety of sarcomatoid mesothelioma is difficult to distinguish from healthy tissue in many cases, making an accurate mesothelioma diagnosis challenging.

Once mesothelioma symptoms have been cataloged and a history of asbestos exposure determined, the next step is to look inside the body - initially with x-rays, followed up by more sophisticated imaging such as CT scans or MRIs. If these images reveal serious abnormalities, a biopsy (tissue samples) will be ordered. These are examined and analyzed at a lab, which usually confirms or contradicts the diagnosis.

When it comes to the sarcomatoid mesothelioma, traditional methods of biopsy pose additional challenges; the normal "needle core" method often results in false information, as sarcomatoid cells are often similar in appearance to benign fibrous tissue. Additionally, histological methods of diagnosis often make it difficult to distinguish between sarcomatoid mesothelioma and other types of unrelated sarcomatoid cancers.

A precise and accurate diagnosis is vital, because a misdiagnosis can lead to an inappropriate course of mesothelioma treatment being prescribed; it is a good idea to get a second and even a third opinion if mesothelioma is suspected.
Treatment Options

Although the details will differ depending on the individual case, all forms of cancer are treated through some combination of surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. How these are administered depends on the location and stage of the cancer.

Unfortunately, sarcomatoid mesothelioma is notoriously resistant to treatment, and the mesothelioma prognosis is not good. The average mesothelioma survival rate between diagnosis and death is seven months.

Hammer, Samuel P. "Macroscopic, Histologic, Histochemical, Immunohistochemical, and Ultrastructural Features of Mesothelioma." Society of Ultrastructural Pathology Companion Meeting, 27 February 2005,
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Mesothelioma and Mesothelium

Anyone who has mesothelioma or knows someone who has mesothelioma knows the pain and suffering one has to endure from this deadly disease. Mesothelioma is a rare form of cancer which is almost always caused by exposure to asbestos. Even though this disease is quite rare, it is very serious and in most cases has a lethal outcome. Most people who develop mesothelioma have worked on jobs where they inhaled asbestos particles, or they have been exposed to asbestos dust and fiber in other ways.

The term mesothelioma comes from mesothelium, which is a protection covering which shield and coats most of the internal organs of the body such as the heart and lung.

Types of Mesothelium

There are two types of mesothelium: visceral mesothelium and parietal mesothelium.

Visceral Mesothelium: Visceral mesothelium is the mesothelial tissue that closely surrounds the organ in the abdominal cavity.

Parietal Mesothlium: The parietal mesothelium is the membrane that surrounds the lungs and the walls of the chest cavity.

What Is Mesothelioma?

Mesothelioma is a rare form of cancer which malignant cells are found in the lining of the chest or Abdomen. This deadly disease can cause abnormal growth and division of the mesothelium cells by invading and damaging the adjusting tissue and organs. The cancer cell can also spread from their original location to other parts of the body. A combination of smoking with asbestos exposure significantly increases a persons' risk of developing mesothelioma. However mesothelioma has also been reported in some people who have not been exposed to asbestos.

Who Is At Risk For Developing Mesothelioma?

Most people who develop mesothelioma have worked on jobs where they inhaled asbestos particles, or they have been exposed to asbestos dust and fiber in other ways. The heavier the exposure to asbestos the higher your chances are of developing mesothelioma, plus the length of exposure time also increases your risk. However research show that some individual with only a brief amount of exposure have also developed mesothelioma; Likewise not everyone who is heavily exposed to asbestos developed mesothelioma. Smoking combined with asbestos exposure can increase your risk of developing cancer of the air passage in the lung.

There have also been reports of family members and those who come in contact with asbestos workers are also at risk for developing mesothelioma or other asbestos related disease. Family members can reduce their chances of exposure to asbestos fibers if asbestos workers shower and change before leaving the workplace.

What Are Some Of The Signs And Symptoms Of Mesothelioma?

The symptoms of mesothelioma may not appear until 20 to 50 years after exposure to asbestos. Some of the signs and symptoms include: weight loss, shortness of breath, fatigue, acute pain in the abdominal region and chest area, abdominal swelling, anemia, just to name a few.

Is Mesothelioma A Death Sentence?

About twenty years ago the answer would be yes, but this is no longer the case today. If you or a loved one has been diagnosed with mesothelioma it is critical that you seek immediate medical treatment.

What Are Some Of The Treatments Used For Mesothelioma?

It depends on the stage of the disease, the location of the cancer and the patient's overall health and age. Some of the mesothelioma treatments include: conventional therapies, surgeries, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, immunotherapy, and or a combination of treatment and medications.
Written by: K P James
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The Sarcomatoid Pleural Mesothelioma

Sarcomatoid mesothelioma accounts for approximately 7 to 20 percent of all mesothelioma cases diagnosed. The other two subtypes of mesothelioma include epithelial and biphasic, which are more common than sarcomatoid. A variant form of sarcomatoid is desmoplastic mesothelioma. This form of mesothelioma is considered the most difficult one to diagnose because of its similarity to sarcomatoid and the fact that the cells can be misdiagnosed as benign fibrous tissue.

Sarcomatoid mesothelioma cells are usually elongated and spindle-shaped. These cells tend to be irregular in size and often overlap one another. When analyzed under a microscope, sarcomatoid mesothelioma cells may resemble another form of cancer called pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinoma. If you or a loved one has been diagnosed with pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinoma, a second opinion from a qualified physician is recommended to make sure an accurate diagnosis has been made.

Treatment options can differ significantly depending on what form of cancer a patient has been diagnosed with. In the case of sarcomatoid mesothelioma, where prognosis is often very poor, a patient may elect a treatment regimen that is much more aggressive since this form of cancer is typically resistant to treatment. Such options may include surgery, chemotherapy or radiation therapy.

Regardless of the subtype a patient may exhibit, developing pleural mesothelioma is almost exclusively caused by asbestos exposure. Exposure to this naturally occurring substance can occur by either inhaling or ingesting asbestos fibers. In many cases, these fibers have become airborne due to the disturbance of asbestos-containing materials. While complications may not present themselves immediately after someone has been exposed, symptoms of pleural mesothelioma can develop between 20 and 50 years later in life.

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